Sources of Middle School Science/Mathematics Self-efficacy Scale


MATHEMATICS SCALE: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate items with which to assess A. Bandura’s (1997) theorized sources of self-efficacy among middle school mathematics students. Results from Phase 1 (N = 1111) were used to develop and refine items for subsequent use. In Phase 2 of the study (N = 824), a 39-item, four-factor exploratory model fit best. Items were revised to strengthen psychometric properties. In Phase 3 (N = 803), a 24-item, four-factor confirmatory factor model fit best. This final model was invariant across gender and ethnicity. Subscales correlated with self-efficacy, self-concept, mastery goals, and optimism. Results suggest that the sources scale is psychometrically sound and could be adapted for use in other domains.

SCIENCE SCALE: The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the latent profiles that arise from middle and high school students’ (N = 1225) reported exposure to information from the four hypothesized sources of self-efficacy; (b) the relationships between these latent profiles and science self-efficacy and science achievement; and (c) the differences in latent profiles as a function of implicit theory of science ability, gender, and grade level. Results revealed that a four-class solution fit the data the best. Results support past findings indicating that mastery experiences are a powerful source of self-efficacy. Furthermore, there seemed to be an additive benefit of drawing from multiple sources simultaneously. Gender did not predict membership in these four profiles, but implicit theory of ability and grade level did. The results show that students in the most adaptive profiles drew from multiple sources of efficacy-relevant information and espoused a strong belief in the plasticity of their science abilities, whereas those who were in the least adaptive profiles exhibited a high degree of negative affect and held a fixed view of science ability.


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Cultural Relevance, Equity, and Diversity
Informal Learning and Afterschool
STEM Career Opportunities and Workforce Development
Youth Motivation and Interests in STEM
Scholar Works and Elsevier
File Attachment(s)
Target Gradespan(s)
Middle school (6-8)
High school (9-12)
Additional Disciplines
Bioscience - general
Computer Science - general
Environmental Science - general
Mathematics - general
Additional Target Participants
American Indian or Alaskan Native
Black or African American
Hispanic or Latino
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander