Preparing Teachers to Engage Rural Students in Computational Thinking through Robotics, Game Design, and Culturally Responsive Teaching


This article examines teacher preparation and teacher change in engineering and computer science education. We examined culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy (CRTSE), culturally responsive teaching outcome expectancy (CRTOE) beliefs, and attitudes toward computational thinking (CT) as teachers participated in one of three treatment groups: robotics only, game design only, or blended robotics/game design. Descriptive data revealed that CRTSE gain scores were higher in the robotics only and blended contexts than in the game design only context. However, CRTOE beliefs were consistent across all treatment groups. In regard to CT attitudes, teachers’ gain scores were higher in the game design only and blended contexts than in the robotics only context. In addition, there were differences by treatment group related to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) practices, while cultural artifacts were evident in each learning environment. The results of this study reveal some variability by treatment type and inform future research on equitable practices in engineering and computer science education.



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Jacqueline Leonard
Monica Mitchell
Joy Barnes-Johnson
Adrienne Unertl
Jill Outka-Hill
Roland Robinson
Carla Hester-Croff
Journal of Teacher Education
Computational Thinking
Cultural Relevance, Equity, and Diversity
STEM Career Opportunities and Workforce Development
Youth Motivation and Interests in STEM
File Attachment(s)
Publication Year
Additional Disciplines
Computer Science - general
Computer Science - computer hardware
Computer Science - gaming and simulations
Computer Science - general skills and mathematics
Computer Science - multimedia - audio, video and animation
Computer Science - programming
Computer Science - web development
Engineering - general
Engineering - aerospace
Engineering - astronomy
Engineering - design
Engineering - nanotechnology
Engineering - robotics